Category Archives: Living Shoreline Projects

CT – 327 more Reef Balls are added to the 64 at Stratford Point

Late 2016 more Reef Balls hit the coast of CT at the site of a pilot project designed for the accretion of soil and protection of marsh grasses.   The pilot project was successful and now, the protected area has increased.   This is a great example of how other estuaries in the NE could protect area’s from erosion,

The Reef Balls were constructed at Reef Innovations site in Sarasota, FL and trucked to CT.  There was some discussion of building in CT but the aggregate would be garnite instead of the Florida limerock used in the pilot project.   Observation in Jim McFarlane’s surveys of sites from CT to LA  showed few encrusting species on granite.  McFarlane’s belief was that Reef Balls more resembled a natural oyster reef structure when made with materials from Sarasota.  The practice of constructing Reef Balls with local materials in one used around the world, so it would be easy for someone to do a study in about every ecosystem you can imagine.  I look forward to someone doing some surveys of the Stratford Point site during high tides, as an evaluation of plagic species visiting the area.


This article was retrieved from the CT  Post  Dec 2017   http://www.ctpost.com/local/article/Creating-a-living-shoreline-with-Reef-Balls-10778523.php#item-38492   Photo comments were added by J.McFarlane

STRATFORD — Jennifer Mattei crouched along the low-tide mark at Stratford Point to scoop up a mound of inky gray sediment in the palm of her hand.

It is proof, the Sacred Heart University biology professor said, that her Reef Balls are working to restore the beach.

Her meandering rows of thousand-pound, dome-shaped cement balls create an artificial reef. Each ball is punctuated with holes that allow the tide and small sea creatures through. Over the past couple, years the reef, planted just off shore, has begun to not only stop erosion but reverse it — enough for Mattei to win another grant to expand her work.

 “It’s working beautifully,” Mattei said Tuesday of what many in the field call a “living shoreline.”

A swath of sediment estimated at four feet deep and 100 feet wide has disappeared along the of shoreline over the past three decades. The property is now owned by the DuPont Corp. and managed by the Audubon Society.

So far, surveyors periodically measuring the terrain estimate sediment about 12 inches thick has re-accumulated over the past two years behind the barrier.

The just-announced $115,198 grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation’s Long Island Sound Futures Fundwill be used this summer, with the aid of a team of Sacred Heart students, to plant thousands of marsh grass plugs along the shoreline in front of the barrier.

The pilot study began with 64 Reef Balls. This November, another 327 were added with the help of DuPont and the Army Corps of Engineers. Mattei checks on them periodically, searching for signs of algae, barnacles and any oysters that now call them home.

At one time, reefs made of clinging oysters protected the shoreline. They disappeared centuries ago.

It was the oysters, the horseshoe crabs, the piping plover and all other species, Mattei said, that got her into this kind of research. Those creatures depend on the shoreline and their access has been compromised by decades of beach erosion and climate change.

“The ocean level is rising,” Mattei said. “Storm frequency is increasing. Global climate change is real.”

Seawalls don’t help. They hurt. When waves crash against them, sediment is pulled away from the shore and sea creatures lose access to the shore.

Mattei hit upon the idea of Reef Balls, which got their start in Florida to protect coral. The are made with a special cement formula that resists erosion and heavy enough to withstand hurricanes. The holes are positioned so that when a wave hits, the water shoots through more gently.

Although used worldwide, they are rare in Connecticut. Scientists like Juliana Barrett, with the University of Connecticut Center for Land Use Education and Research hopes that will soon change.

Barrett said state law now severely restricts the construction of traditional seawalls. Mattei’s project is a great example of an alternative.

“What she is doing is really, really important,” Barrett, said. “She is creating a living shoreline I hope will be replicated. She has the most extensive project going on.”

In addition to rebuilding dunes and salt marsh grass, Mattei said she also has her eye on sediment she expects to be dredged next fall from the nearby boat channel at the mouth of the Housatonic River, on the opposite end of Stratford’s beach front.

Although some is earmarked for Hammonasett Beach in Madison, Mattei said, some directed her way would speed up her stabilization project.

“I hope this can become a demonstration site for what to do,” Mattei said.

 

Stratford Point, erosion of the peat and marsh grasses. The new Reef Ball Breakwater will stop the erosion allowing marsh grass with roots up to 9ft deep to hold the soil in place.  J. McFarlane   Photo: Brian A. Pounds / Hearst Connecticut Media
Original Reef Balls are darker toward the shoreline. Brighter Balls are ones placed in 2016
Interesting arrangement, as we learn more about the accretions of sand we found a spit forming at the inside of arcs as is visible on the original Reef Ball Breakwater at the far left. J.McFarlane    Photo: Brian A. Pounds / Hearst Connecticut Media

 

Reef Innovations supporting the NC Coastal Federation

Jim will be heading to North Carolina to represent Reef Innovations and the Reef Ball Foundation at

Sound Economic Development: Creating a Rising Economic Tide for the N.C. Coast  Raleigh, NC

Breakwater Project – Morris Landing NC 2016, Survey by Jim McFarlane – Notice Oyster intertidal, balls on bottom of the picture are closer to shoreline, and a couple inches lower. I noticed the water wasn’t as clear as boat traffic picked up and many of them were still underwater at Low tide.

Change your Bulkhead! Morris Landing seemed untouched by hurricane in 2016

“One of our projects, Morris Landing, seemed untouched by the hurricane; the sill structure looked as it did before and that’s the point of them,” Skrabal said, a coastal scientist with the federation.

The comparative studies or living shoreline treatments by The North Carolina Coastal Federation, shows the value of homeowners taking steps other than bulkheads to protect their shoreline from erosion during high energy events.

Prior to the hurricane I surveyed the site that consists of  rows of Reef Balls that have oysters growing on the.  The site also compares Shell Baggs,  A freestanding bulkhead, granite riprap, and loose oyster shell.

It was great hearing they didn’t have any loss of shoreline at this site during the storm.  A 360degree video of the Morris landing site is at http://www.reefinnovations.com/archives/4383


Article Retrieved from:  http://www.coastalreview.org/2016/12/living-shorelines-withstand-matthews-force/

Living Shorelines Withstand Matthew’s Force

Third in a multi-part series

HOLLY RIDGE – When Hurricane Matthew approached North Carolina in October, many in the state – from scientists to casual observers – watched to see the effects on shorelines. Storm surge and increased wave action can visibly wear away the coast. How would properties with bulkheads fare? Or, for those with wetlands conservation in mind, would living shorelines deliver what they promised?

Living shorelines are designed to protect vulnerable marsh habitats. In the case of hurricanes, though, living shorelines are also meant to be filters of stormwater runoff and to mitigate the erosion caused by the water that inevitably comes with the storms.

North Carolina Coastal Federation staff, with the help of volunteers, built a 310-foot living shoreline this year at Morris Landing. Photo: North Carolina Coastal Federation

North Carolina Coastal Federation staff, with the help of volunteers, built a 310-foot living shoreline this year at Morris Landing. Photo: North Carolina Coastal Federation

Larry Jansen chose his home in Holly Ridge’s Preserve at Morris Landing in part because of water and coastal access. As a volunteer with the North Carolina Coastal Federation, he’s been watching the 310-foot living shoreline completed there in July as the fifth phase of an ongoing restoration project, and he returned to the site soon after the hurricane passed through.

“I couldn’t really see any impact at all,” Jansen said.

Living shoreline proponents say that’s no surprise.

“For the most part, these shorelines are behaving exactly the way we expect them to,” said Tracy Skrabal, a coastal scientist with the federation.

Living shorelines are generally made with a permeable sill, such as bagged oyster shells or rock, that follows the natural slope of the land, with marsh grasses and other wetland plants behind.

Tracy Skrabal

Tracy Skrabal

“When the water rushes up, there’s nothing impeding the flow,” Skrabal said. So, they are designed for the water to come in and go back out.

Although these observations are a good sign, there is more meticulous work being done in the aftermath of the hurricane. Carter Smith is a doctoral student at the University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill Institute of Marine Sciences in Morehead City.

“It started about a year and a half ago, with the goal of comparing how bulkheads, living shorelines and natural shorelines perform in major storm events,” Smith said of the research.

In the weeks since the hurricane, Smith has visited the project’s 30 study sites from Southport to Manteo.

Carter Smith

Carter Smith

At each, there are comparable shoreline structures that will face similar storm surge and wave energy. For the purposes of the study, living shorelines are those that have had some type of restoration work, such as the addition of marsh sills and aquatic plantings, and natural shorelines are unmodified. Both are compared to the hardened bulkhead type structures that are common along the coast. In the coming months, Smith will work on assessing the post-storm effects. Right now, though, she has made some preliminary findings.

“For the living shorelines, I would say there are no detectable instances of damage,” Smith said. For natural shorelines, there was measurable marsh erosion. “In some cases, a loss of over five meters (about 16.4 feet) from last year.”

Some bulkheads remained intact, but there are some stretches where bulkheads were damaged. Hardened structures such as bulkheads can fail in a number of ways during storms and the damage is often obvious.

“What we see is that the vertical surface of bulkheads is more susceptible to high-energy events,” Skrabal said. “And storm waves can scour away what’s in front of them.”

The same can happen behind the bulkhead, when saltwater overlaps the structure and weakens it, causing structural damage or collapse.

Smith’s project also includes conducting boat surveys along 100 kilometers, or about 62 miles, of North Carolina shorelines, taking photos and noting the location coordinates of damaged structures.

“I would say that at least 50 percent of the bulkheads we surveyed were damaged, from minor damage to full-on collapse,” Smith said.

A post-storm assessment is also expected to be released by the Division of Coastal Management, analyzing how sills, marshes and bulkheads fared during the storm.

For years, coastal conservationists have been championing living shorelines for protection of marsh habitat.

Students plants marsh grasses to create a living shoreline on Jones Island in the White Oak River.

Students plants marsh grasses to create a living shoreline on Jones Island in the White Oak River. File photo

“When you look at bulkheads, they ecologically bisect the habitat,” Skrabal said. “Marsh needs sediment, and they (bulkheads) tend to starve them of that with erosion and wave energy.”

Conservationists also have been encouraging property owners to consider living shorelines for better, more sustainable protection of their property. But bulkheads are by far the most popular choice for property owners. A previous study from the Institute of Marine Sciences estimates that as much as 9 to 16 percent of the coast is protected with bulkheads, and permits for bulkheads are easier to obtain. Whereas, it can be more difficult, months-long process to get permits needed to install a living shoreline. Bulkheads are more expensive, though, and can cost thousands of dollars, depending on the length of the shoreline.

“And the cost of repairing bulkheads after storms is considerable, too,” Skrabal said. It is her hope that the example of how well living shorelines did during the storm will convince more homeowners to consider them rather than repairing or replacing bulkheads.

Erin Fleckenstein

Erin Fleckenstein

“One of our projects, Morris Landing, seemed untouched by the hurricane; the sill structure looked as it did before and that’s the point of them,” Skrabal said.

This resiliency is something Erin Fleckenstein, a coastal scientist with the federation’s northeast office, has noticed, too. She cited a homeowner at Silver Lake Harbor on Ocracoke Island who had a living shoreline built there this past summer.

“Before, they were facing considerable erosion, mostly due to ferry traffic,” Fleckenstein said. But the owner reached out to Fleckenstein after the hurricane and made a point of saying how pleased they were with the erosion control and how well the shoreline did.

Survey Photos from Point Pinole

Survey Pictures from California.

California
Photo by Helen Dickson

Point Pinole reef

photo by Sheryl Drinkwater


Pt. Pinole Monitoring 2

photo by Helen Dickson


What’s on the Reef?

First Colonizers – build it and they will come!

By Helen Dickson

reef1As we say hello to 2015, we also wrap up our first year monitoring our oyster reef on the Point Pinole Shoreline. We’ve found some great things!

First, and most important, we found our native Olympia oysters! These crusty creatures were the impetus for the reef project, and we are happy to report that they have found their new habitat and are settling in nicely. They are present by the hundreds on the reef balls, and they have grown an average of 220% since August–that means they have more than tripled their body size in just four months!

Olympia oysters are smaller than the Pacific oysters that we commonly think of (and eat), so these young bivalves are still pretty small: about a third of an inch in length. They can expect to get a few inches bigger before they’re fully grown.

reef2Oyster larvae are only motile for a short time before they pick a spot and settle down. They need a hard surface to attach to, such as a rock or the shells of adult oysters. The sediment that washed down into the bay during the gold mining days covered up many of the habitable spots, and now hard surfaces are at a premium. The oyster reef balls, made of bay sand, oyster shell and concrete, provide nice hard spots for oysters to settle down and get to their life’s work: filtering water. As filter feeders, Olympia oysters strain their food from the water, filtering about 50 gallons of water per day and doing their part to keep the bay clean and healthy.

Our other reef inhabitants are barnacles. They are also filter feeders, but they have a specialized skill set: while oysters and most other filter feeders internally filter water, barnacles actually reach out of the shelter of their shells with long, feathery limbs and grab food particles from the water. Smaller than oysters, barnacles tend to grow on any hard substrate they can find, up to and including marine animals such as whales.

Oysters and barnacles tend to be among the first colonizers of new spaces in the marine world. They can weather harsh environments and end up creating more suitable habitat for many other life forms, including nudibranchs, crabs, and even small fish. This community is not always a welcome addition: for example, presence of these “fouling organisms” on boat hulls can create so much drag in the water that fuel efficiency drops, sometimes drastically. However, to us this community of hardy invertebrates communicates a healthy and prosperous bay.

reef3We witnessed another magic moment that brought home the fact that the reef is fulfilling its purpose. It came in the form of a beautiful bird, near sundown, on a stormy December day: a Great Egret was spied fishing amongst the reef balls, a sure sign that life is moving into the reef.

If you’re interested in learning more and volunteering to monitor the reef, please contact Helen Dickson (helen@thewatershedproject.org).




We Have Deployment!

100 Reef Balls Create a Native Oyster Reef

By Chris Lim

oysterreef1Hooray, we finally did it! This past Friday, we adorned the San Francisco Bay with our native oyster reefalong the North Richmond shoreline in Point Pinole Regional Park. Friday’s installation was a culmination of many days and years of demanding work, work highlighting people’s dedication to making the Bay a healthier place. Work either touched by an agency ally, community volunteer, or local supporter.

A range of people attended this eventful day, each with a common connection: the Olympia oyster. As the only oyster native to the west coast of North America, we all appreciate the role oysters play in a healthy ecosystem. Oysters provide habitat for small organisms such as amphipods, worms, and crabs, that are food for larger animals like salmon and birds.

Under a bright sun and pleasant breeze, community members enjoyed oysters on the half shell, while observing the crew of Dixon Marine Services, a local oceanographic company, lower 100 reef balls into the water. Throughout the day, people had a variety of questions about our 250 pound reef balls, but the one on the tip of everyone’s tongue was, “Can we eat the oysters growing on them?” We need people to understand that our project is rooted in science and the oysters are NOT to be eaten. Our Bay and its infinite connections to the people of the Bay, is inevitably affected by the pollution entering our Estuary. Oysters are filter feeders, so in order to eat, adult oysters filter almost 10 gallons of water per day. Oysters can store some of these pollutants in their bodies, and excrete them as well. But one day we envision a swimmable and edible Bay.oysterreef2

Though our project is rooted in science our native oyster reef is really about our community. This reef will benefit the health of San Francisco Bay for years to come because a small group of proactive people decided to make positive environmental choices together. Whether one helped push through a permit, got dirty making reef balls, monitored oysters, or donated services, their imprint is a lasting part of the oyster reef. The reef is another opportunity to connect people with their watershed. The reef becomes an outdoor classroom in our high school curriculum, Wild! Oysters. Students come face-to-face with actual live oysters in the field and monitor them just as marine scientists would. We will also engage community volunteers to monitor the reef for oyster recruitment and the percent cover of other organisms.volunteers

We all worked together to do something good for our Bay, and provide Mother Nature with the kick-start she needs. So now the reef balls will allow nature to take its course, letting hundreds of thousands newly attached oysters, or spat, to filter pollutants from the Bay. Our reef is a great example of what an organized community is able to accomplish.

If you are interested in becoming involved with the monitoring of native oysters, please check our upcoming events and contact Chris Lim.

Photo Credits: Andrew Whitmore, Greening Urban Watersheds Intern



Stay in touch with what is going on at  The Watershed Project     http://www.thewatershedproject.org/WhatWeDo/WhatWeDo.html

 

Bird Island Survey Oct 2016

This month Jim surveyed the Audubon project designed as a living breakwater at Bird Island located in Tampa Bay off the Alafia River.

Jim studying the Reef Balls at Bird Island in 2016
Jim studying the Reef Balls at Bird Island in 2016

 

During this study I collected some 360 degree video above and below the water.  I continue to attempt to establish a protocol for scientific surveys using 360 degree

video.

Living shoreline solutions around the world using a complex AR module.

Contact us in your planning stages as we are happy to share research and information as you look for a solutions to your living shoreline issues.

It could be the question of avoiding erosion by providing wave attenuation with a product that has proven success over the past 23 years.  Starting with research sponsored by the US Army Corp of engineers in the 1990.   Or it could be similar to this project designed to protect an Audubon Bird Sanctuary in Tampa Bay.Eagle on Alafia River banks

Aesthetics was an important factor in the design of Reef Balls.  From the water it’s not a sore thumb against the shoreline. The above photo was taken 2 years into the project.  Now phase two is underway with more Reef Balls.

Sometimes the living shoreline solution may be a scattering of Reef Balls.  This technique is proving EFH as well as the required relief for re-establishing oysters.  Reef Balls are the most effective living shoreline solution because of the complexity of the artificial reef modules design.  Various shapes and sizes  of holes, the concave and convex shape of the holes, the hollow center, all the surfaces are curved, adding a benefit in wave attenuation as well as providing the eddie currents for filter feeders.    Complex artificial reef modules such as the Reef Ball have proven to provide a better habitat for crustaceans. Other studies have shown that complex AR modules can match the area’s existing habitat in biomass.oyster dome reefNotice the opening around the base of the Reef Balls,  when on field survey be sure to look inside, the diversity of fish and crustaceans will amaze you. The waverly base of the Reef Balls is often the location of stone crabs.

Sooner or later a storm will cross your living shoreline.   Research has shown that living shorelines add resilience.  One of the key species that stabilize the shoreline are marsh grasses with roots that anchor to depths of 10ft. The catch is many shorelines have lost marsh grasses due to wave action from boat traffic.   The marshes are typically not high energy coast,  but to re-establish the marsh grasses  wave attenuation is needed.  Reef Balls provide that wave attenuation, the design of any breakwater system requires some in depth studies of wind direction, historic wave characteristics,  currents and many other factors.   Regardless, a productive living shoreline needs a flow of water.   Reef Balls, allow that water flow and they have a track record of staying in place in large storms.

SAG (submerged aquatic vegetation)  is important to re-establish,  however wave action also has an impact on these grasses.   Existing seawalls cause a reflective wave adding turbulence on the seafloor.  As the waves reflect from the seawall, they meet the next incoming wave and the resulting action is a doubling of the wave height,  that also affects the bottom so stopping that reflecting wave is of high importance.   A living shoreline solution for areas of seawall that you cannot move offshore to install the breakwater is Eco-Rap.   First developed in 2015 these modules can be placed along an existing seawall  providing wave attenuation, resilience and as a bonus you get IFH as well as crustaceans. The Eco-Rap in Palmetto, Florida helped in the restoration of sea grass beds close to the seawall.it-is-done

Additional research in seagrass beds has shown an importance of a rock outcropping for the juvenile stone crab to settle, in Florida placing a Reef Ball in a seagrass bed, is not readily accepted,  but that is another things to think of as you working on the extended shoreline.  The small microhabitats are proven to be a great form of restoration.

More information on best practices using Reef Balls will an oral presentation at Restore America’s Estuaries Conference Dec. 2016.    Specific information on using Reef Balls for Shellfish Restoration will be an oral presentation at the International Conference on Shellfish Restoration in November. 

Get to work on restoring salt marsh!

With more research showing the value of salt marsh we find they are important for carbon sequestration as well as protection from rising sea levels.

This report from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science  points to the resilience of salt marshes.



 

  • High and Low Marsh

Study predicts salt marshes will persist despite rising seas

Says traditional assessment methods overestimate vulnerability

A new study in Nature Climate Change contends that traditional assessment methods overestimate the vulnerability of salt marshes to sea-level rise because they don’t fully account for processes that allow the marshes to grow vertically and migrate landward as water levels increase.

The persistence of salt marshes despite rising seas would be a rare bit of good news for coastal ecosystems, which are under threat from a host of factors including nutrient pollution, invasive species, and development. Healthy marshes buffer coasts from storms, improve water quality, provide habitat for commercial fisheries, and help fight global warming by trapping carbon.

Lead author Matt Kirwan, a professor at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, says “Catastrophic predictions of marsh loss appear alarming, but they stem from simple models that don’t simulate the dynamic feedbacks that allow marshes to adapt not only to present rates of sea-level rise but the accelerated rates predicted for coming decades. Marsh soils actually build much faster as marshes become more flooded.”

Low-elevation marshes are where dynamic feedbacks operate most effectively to counter sea-level rise. ©M. Kirwan.
Low-elevation marshes are where dynamic feedbacks operate most effectively to counter sea-level rise. ©M. Kirwan.

More frequent flooding carries more mud into the marsh and also encourages the growth of several common marsh plants. Together, these processes raise the marsh soil in concert with rising waters.By not accounting for these feedbacks, Kirwan and his co-authors argue, traditional assessments greatly underestimate marsh resilience. Joining Kirwan on the study were Stijn Temmerman of the University of Antwerpen, Emily Skeehan of VIMS, Glenn Guntenspergen of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Sergio Fagherazzi of Boston University.

The team conducted their study by compiling and re-analyzing 179 previously published records of change in marsh elevation from sites in North America and Europe. “Our study shows that soil accretion rates more than double as marshes become more flooded, suggesting a strong ability for marshes to survive accelerations in sea-level rise,” says Kirwan.

“The most common models greatly overestimate marsh vulnerability to sea-level rise,” adds Guntenspergen. “These models assume that marshes rise, but only at a rate equal to recent measurements of marsh accretion. This approach leads inevitably to marsh drowning, and predictions that most tidal wetlands will be inundated by the end of the current century.”

The researchers say the few models that do incorporate dynamic feedbacks indicate that marshes can generally survive 10 to 50 millimeters of sea-level rise per year. That far exceeds current annual rates of about 3 millimeters of globally averaged sea-level rise, and mostly exceeds even the higher-end rates of 8 to 17 millimeters per year predicted by U.N. climate scientists for 2100.

The team suggests that use of these more advanced models will help ecosystem managers assess marsh vulnerability more accurately, and should be encouraged. They also recommend that researchers expand their current focus on the vertical adaptability of marshes by mounting studies that help clarify the processes that control the horizontal migration of marsh boundaries through time.

Looking at recent history, the researchers note that the feedbacks built into the dynamic models also help explain the observed stability of many salt marshes in the mid-Atlantic and elsewhere during recent decades, and the relative rarity of marshes that have already drowned. Where drowned marshes do occur—think the Mississippi delta or Venice lagoon—the culprit is a reduced sediment supply, due to dam or levee building, or increased subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal and other factors.

High-elevation marshes are more vulnerable to sea-level rise, but grow more resilient as they succumb to rising waters and are replaced by low marsh. ©M. Kirwan.
High-elevation marshes are more vulnerable to sea-level rise, but grow more resilient as they succumb to rising waters and are replaced by low marsh. ©M. Kirwan.

“Marshes fail to survive current rates of sea-level rise only where people have restricted sediment delivery or where the tidal range is very low,” says Kirwan.The researchers temper their optimism regarding vertical marsh growth with a cautionary note about the importance of allowing salt marshes to migrate horizontally as rising seas push them landward. They note that in low-lying areas of the U.S. Atlantic Coast, migration into nearby forests could offset most of the loss of existing salt marshes.

But marsh migration isn’t possible where obstructed by coastal cliffs or human barriers. “Almost 20% of the Chesapeake Bay shoreline is hardened by riprap, seawalls, and other structures,” says Kirwan, “and similar structures border almost all marsh areas in northwest Europe. We suggest that the availability of low-lying land for wetland migration is a first-order determinant of marsh fate.”

 

Retreived from: http://www.vims.edu/newsandevents/topstories/salt_marsh_resilience.php

 

Offshore Bar, EFH

McDill 2015
 

Essential Fish Habitat,  as well as a breakwater is the importance of re-establishing an “offshore bar”.   This video from September 2015 will give you an idea of the type of marine life attracted to the structure.

No, other artificial reef material provides the surface area, wave attenuation and eddie currents that are created with the use of Reef Balls.  In the video you will also see the value of the relief from the bottom that creates habitat that cannot be created with bags of shell, or layers of rock.

I conclude, that in any living shoreline restoration project there should be an living breakwater off the shoreline in depths of 3′ or more.

Video filmed in Tampa Bay Florida – McDill  provided to Reef Innovations.

Comments by Jim McFarlane.